Supplements for Trical 1st Year & 2nd Year students

Reading Time: 2 minutes

Electrical engineering is one of the pioneers in modern development. This branch has its origin dated

back to the times when magnetism and electricity were discovered. Today, it provides the 4th

requirement of humans after air, water and food- electricity. It is known as the mother branch of

Electronics, Communication and Computer Science.


• Broad classification of Electrical Engineering-

 1. Power System- It deals with the generation, transmission, distribution of electric

power. Moreover, it deals with stability and fault analysis of electrical lines.

If possible, visit a power plant.

 2. Control and Optimization- It deals with control systems which regulates almost

every machine and process. For example, to regulate a movement of robotic arm,

the design of complete system comes under this subject. This is a subject for you

if you are interested in Mathematics. This subject along with Microcontrollers,

forms the exciting automation subject (which is present in almost every modern

equipment). For further

 3. Power electronics- When electronics is applied for power conversion. This forms

integral part of modern power system. (If you are fascinated by inverter made by

Rancho in 3 idiots, then this is the subject for you)

 4. Machines- A subject of imagination. I don’t think you need description for this


 5. Electrical Circuits- This part will serve as a basis for all the subjects described above.

 6. Microprocessor, Microcontrollers and Embedded System- If you are fond of

electronics and programming, these courses are for you. Almost every appliance

uses embedded system, for its control and operation.


• Things to do in summer –

 1. Visit a motor rewinding workshop. It will give you real insight of windings in

electrical machine. It will definitely serve as a base for subjects like Electrical

Machine 1 & 2. Moreover there is no prior permission required, you can just go

there, give your introduction and ask them to explain you the windings of machine.

 2. Do not ignore MATHEMATICS. There are many subjects in Electrical Engineering

which heavily rely on calculus and linear algebra. If you love to study apart from

your normal curriculum, there are online courses of calculus and linear algebra on


 3. Probably everyone related to engineering has given this advice- Learn C

programming. And I am sure that majority of you have ignored it. I will just say-

If you want to peacefully clear your engineering, sit down in your room, watch

movie- The Social Network, get some motivation for programming, and learn C

programming. I know this is hard, but sometimes we don’t have options.

Use of Optimization Techniques in Various Disciplines

Reading Time: 4 minutes


– Choosing a best solution among a set of many solutions
– It is about fulfilling the objective with certain limitations
– It is not about a perfect solution, it is about doing the best you can with limited resources
– Optimization can only be applied when we have a set of options. Optimization is meaningless when we have only one option. greater-mumbai-map

e.g. Suppose you want to arrange a trip to Mumbai. In this trip you want to visit following 4 places: Juhu beach, Bandra bandstand, Marine lines and Gateway of India. You have two options: first, you take following sequence to cover those 4 places:

Juhu->Bandra->Marine lines->Gateway of India

Second, you take following sequence:

Juhu->Marine lines->Bandra->Gateway of India

Which option you will take?? Of course, you will take option first because it minimizes your time and cost. Here our objective was to visit 4 places, which is fulfilled and that too with minimum time and money.




24-road-junctions-los-angeles– Designing of road networks
– Design of civil engineering structures such as frames, foundations, bridges, towers, chimneys and dams for minimum cost.
– Designed of minimum weight structures for earth quake, wind and other types of random loading.
– Design of water resources systems for obtaining maximum benefit.
– Optimal plastic design of structures.

2. Electronics Engineeringdownload
– Optimum design of circuit boards

Eg: While designing a circuit board, we need to place components such that solder path is not shorted. Circuit should run after it is developed on GCB(Genreal Circuit Board). Here, limitation is the size of circuit board. Circuit boards are available in certain fixed sizes in market. Moreover, for embedded application, size of circuit board should be as small as possible. So, we need to place components such that we find a clear path for soldering without much complexities.


3. Mechanical Engineering
– Optimum design of linkages, cams, gears, machine tools, and other mechanical (14)

– Selection of machining conditions in metal-cutting processes for minimizing the product cost.– Design of pumps, turbines and heat transfer equipment for maximum efficiency

– Design of material handling equipment such as conveyors, trucks and cranes for minimizing cost.

4. Computer Science
– Program and software optimization

5. Chemical EngineeringWP_20131217_0031
– Optimum design of chemical processing equipments and plants
– Design of optimum pipeline networks for process industry
– Selection of a site for an industry



6. Electrical Engineeringdownload (17)
– Optimum design of electrical machinery such as motors, generators and transformers
– Optimum design of electrical networks.
– Optimal production planning, controlling and scheduling.
– Optimizing location of a power plant
– Optimum design of control systems.

Eg: Power plant should be located such that it is close to consumer( to reduce transmission losses) and close to the fuel source(to reduce transportation cost). But it is rarely possible that consumer site and fuel source are located near each other. In India, fuel sources are located in Jharkhand,  MP, Chattisgarh. While big consumers( heavy industries) are located in western region(Gujarat, Maharashtra). So we need to have a compromise in chosing location of power plant. It should be at optimum distance from fuel source and consumer site. 

7. Commercial Application
– Allocation of resources or services among several activities to maximize the benefit
– Inventory control
– Controlling the waiting and idle times in production lines to reduce the cost of production.
– Planning the best strategy to obtain maximum profit in the presence of a competitor



These techniques are developed in last 15-20 years. They heavily rely on power of computation. They are based on the natural phenomena. Few examples are:
– Genetic Algorithm
– Ant Colony Optimization
– Teaching Learning Based Optimization
– Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)
– Mosquito behavior based optimization


– Short Term Training Programs (STTPs)
– Video lectures on NPTEL by G. Srinivasan sir (IIT Madras)
– Maple
– Mathematica
– Nexus
– Labview
– Excel

CEV - Handout