A Scary new neighbour: Artifical Intelligence

Reading Time: 2 minutes

A Scary new neighbour: Artifical IntelligenceArtificial intelligence is the intelligence displayed by machines, in contrast with the natural intelligence displayed by humans and other animals. 

Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, and in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by AI winter( the loss of funding), followed by new approaches, success, and renewed funding. For most of its history, AI research has been divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other.

Now, let us inspect this issue from the perspective of a sane everyday human, rather than viewing scientific definitions and catchwords. This new neighbor is scary but at the very time exciting and enthralling. Many people desire to tour his/her house and fancy to socialize with him/her but are apprehensive of the consequences which may follow (death perhaps).

Isaac Asimov stated the three rules of robotics as follows
–>A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
–>A robot must obey orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
–>A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

These rules have also been portrayed in the movie I, Robot.

There are always two factions to a thought and humans like to t explore them both. Even AI has become a part of that ever persisting dispute on the greater good of humanity.
Can AI create its own personality? Is that ensured? Is that ethical? If it creates its own personality, then it ain’t practicing the human’s order, should it be discontinued? Should it be sustained?

Machines with intelligence might have the potential to use their intelligence to make ethical decisions.

Then arises the most debated problem, the existential uncertainty from AI.

The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of human race. Once humans develop AI, it will take off on its own and redesign itself at an ever-increasing rate. Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn’t compete and would be superseded’ — Stephan Hawking

AI could also solve the many dilemmas with which humans are struggling. They might become successful in recreating human consciousness in a machine, which may yield humans everlasting experience.

The debate can go on and on but shouldn’t something be given an opportunity, a stepping stone or look at history, we humans invite chaos when we forget our principles. These are two contrasting arguments pointing towards the same issue, could that one opportunity invite death?

 

Lead-based Paints : Are you breathing to illness?

Reading Time: 2 minutes

Lead has been quite useful to mankind since ages, but over the last century, scientists and researchers have discovered the various dangers it poses to the human body.
So, what do we make of the title? In ancient times, white lead was actively mixed with oil to make the most suitable paint as required by the ‘master painters’ of that era. Lead was preferred because of the properties it imparted to the oil-paint, notable ones were washability, less wear and tear and weather resistant. Even,  till the early 1900s, white lead was used by the U.S government to paint the White House and the Capitol building.
But, in recent times, as the world has become more aware of the harms that some of the elements in the surroundings possess, we came to know the various side-effects of the Lead-paint that were used in objects of day to day usages such as household paints and toys. Lead paint is hazardous. It can cause nervous system damage, stunted growth, kidney damage, and delayed development. It is dangerous to children because it tastes sweet, therefore encouraging children to put lead chips and toys with lead dust in their mouths. Lead is considered a possible and likely carcinogen. High levels may result in death.
Now, considering the situation in India, though many major brands in the paint industry have brought the level of lead in paints to below the allowable  limit of 90 ppm, but even today in many tier 2 and 3 cities and towns, oil-paints having a concentration of lead in excess of 10,000 ppm are being sold. According to report published by Toxics Link titled ‘Lead in Enamel Household Paints in India in 2015’ found that 32 of 101 enamel paints analysed had lead concentration above 10,000 ppm (parts per million), way above the prescribed BIS standards (90 parts per million) for lead in paints. All these 32 paints were from the small and medium enterprises (SMEs). This situation has arisen because the government of India has failed to keep a check and these paints are mostly being sold by small and medium scale manufacturers who look for profits and have fewer or null resources for consumer awareness programs. As of April 2016, GOI has put up a  page for suggestions on banning paints having more than 90 ppm of lead in them.
The conclusion that can be derived from such studies carried is that we, as a community are still not much aware of the various things that affect us daily, and an initiative must be taken by the government to help spread awareness about the health risks and other dangers associated with various daily usage products.

Interactive Session by SVNIT Alumni of Batch 1970

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The alumni of 1965-70, amongst the earliest batches of SVREC had a joyous reunion, remembering their youthful days of college, how they went ahead in life and made their efforts worth its weight in gold! Of the glorious gathering of around 25 alumni , we the current generation of SVNITians had the honour of knowing, hearing and connecting to them through a CEV Talk entitled “Interactive Session by SVNIT Alumni of Batch 1970” on 8th February,2015.

cev team with alumni of '70 batch
cev team with alumni of ’70 batch

The first talk was delivered by Mr. S. Neelakantan (Retd Scientist ‘G’, Group Dir., Helicopter and Fighter Aircraft DRDO) entitled “Helicopters- Concepts and Development” wherein he discussed about the fundamental concepts & history of Indian Helicopter Technologies, development of indigenously built Advanced Light Helicopters- Dhruv, its design, development tests & certification. Prospects of future advanced warfare & tactical helicopters along with their robustness was also shared.

In one of the most interactive sessions, Mr.  Sailesh Lakdawala , Energy Consultant , Duke Energy, USA gave insights on power generation, working and reliability of Nuclear Power. He discussed the current scenario of Nuclear Power Generation in USA, India and rest of the world. This interesting talk also discussed about Fukushima Daiichi Reactor failure, Chernobyl Disaster, Thorium Reactors, Breeder vessels, Small Modular Reactors, Pressurised Water Reactor & Boiling Water Reactors.

In yet another captivating talk, Mr. Harsh Thakkar , Senior Consultant, National Grid USA emphasised the importance of System Protection and also gave us the optimism of honing entrepreneurship skills by giving an example of Green Light Planet , a Forbes 30 under 30 (2012)  start-up founded by his son Mr. Anish Thakkar. In end we had an overview of current Elevator Technology by Mr. Satish Mandirwala, Eskay Elevators.

It was heart rendering to interact with alumni who had such diverse backgrounds such as US Navy Weapon Systems, Indian Army, Super Alloy Project, Mining Industry etc.

We thank all the alumni for sharing valuable lessons and ethics important for all to succeed in life. We also extend gratitude to Dr. PD Porey, Director, SVNIT, Mr. Utpal Mistry President & Mr. Kamal Parekh Hon. Secretary of SVNIT Alumni Association for extending their help in making this event a grand success. We also thank all CEVians for working hard to put together a successful informative session and the wide spectrum of audience that came to listen the golden words of wisdom of their alumni.

 

– Pratik Chatrath  (Founder, CEV )  & Harshit Kapadia (Co-Founder, CEV )

 

Samsung vs. Google

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Everything you need to know about Android, Motorola, Google, Tizen and the future!

Samsung launches Tizen phone in CES 2015 (Though at first sight it’s look like Android phone).

Is this the simple news for you? But it’s not.

Why Samsung needs to unveil a whole new OS based smart phone? Did sell of Samsung Android phone decreases? In market scenario in 2011-12, Samsung is doing good in smart phone market across the world. And keep increasing their turnover. This whole idea of new OS came after the Deal. The Deal between Google Inc. and Motorola Mobility. The Deal worth $12 billion. The Deal which was an investment to dive head first into the smart phone market in US for Google Inc.

After this deal of $12 billion between Google Inc. and Motorola Mobility, Google became smart phone manufacturer as well. And Samsung was afraid that Google might overtake the market and they will be in difficulty. From then Samsung started working on the project called ‘Tizen’ and launches its first beta version on 5th January, 2012 just after few months of acquisition of Motorola Mobility( on August 15th,2011).

“We welcome today’s news, which demonstrates Google’s deep commitment to defending Android, its partners, and the ecosystem.”

– J. K. Shin. President, Samsung, Mobile Communication Division on August 15, 2011 when Google announced an agreement to acquire Motorola Mobility.

Samsung vs. Google

We’re just two weeks into 2015, but Samsung’s already made more progress with its in-house Tizen OS. There’s finally a real Tizen smart phone (Open-source but not “The Android”), and the Korean company promises that the rest of the year will bring “a flood of devices” running its operating system. ( Though at this time Tizen Application store is having very few number of apps). Company has claimed that the Tizen-powered smart watches, cameras, TVs, and the new Z1 smart phone that we’ve seen so far are “just the tip of the iceberg”. Tizen will be a crucial part of Samsung’s future IoT(Internet of Things) strategy, helping to connect and smarten up devices and appliances around our homes and beyond. Samsung says it “requires less processing power and memory, thereby ensuring faster device speeds while consuming less energy.” Tizen is being compared with Google’s Android platform. Android is expanding beyond its smart phone origins with tailored versions like Android Wear and Android TV serving the emerging connectivity needs of specific device categories.

        Main aim of Samsung for this step might be to diversify away from its dependency on TechGiant Google. And to cut down the monopoly of Google over smart phone OS. The Korean company is keen to make sure that they achieve this, at least in part, through the use of its own software. To encourage developers to jump on board and help build an ecosystem around its anticipated Tizen deluge, Samsung points out that it sold 665 million devices last year, which “could convert into a lot of Tizen.”

Tizen is still far from being able to challenge Android on phones (and it’s doubtful that it’ll ever get there), but the way it’s being positioned and promoted by Samsung in other areas, puts it in direct confrontation with Google’s expansionary plans. No matter how compromiser Samsung’s tone may be, today’s announcement of an expanding Tizen OS is a clear signal of its intent to challenge and compete with Google for the next wave of connected devices.

In short cold war has begun between Google Inc. and Samsung Electronics Pvt. Ltd. It is actually good for customers.

Source: Samsung Tomorrow

Training at Railways : A brief Intro

Reading Time: 4 minutes
INTRODUCTION

 

        Let’s start with basics “What is this blog about?.” It’s about my training in Signal and telecom at DRM office, State Entry Road, New Delhi i.e. Railway zonal headquarter. Well, Indian Rail network is one of the largest rail networks in the world. Naturally, to manage such a vast network requires some complex communication techniques. Second “What I learned?”  According to them, it would have taken 3 months alone  to teach me everything about just one section of railways. and unfortunately mine was only 6 weeks. So I basically got an overview of the functioning of Indian Railways. “What will I post? A brief intro of my training. So, let’s rock.
      The first question you may ask me “Why to take training in railways ?” A valid question.  Many of the equipment used in railways are unique to railways only i.e they have no resale value in open market as they can’t be used elsewhere. So, you won’t find them anywhere outside of railways. These equipment are only designed for railways and can’t be found in open market. Their standards are set by RDSO (Research design and standard organisation). It designs as well as sets standard for equipment used in railways. OK let’s get started…..

 

SCHEDULE OF TRAINING

 

WEEK 1 : TRAIN TRAFFIC CONTROL

 

       Train traffic control plays an important role in day to day functions of our trains. Being the second largest network in world railway cannot be handled by any private party. After all managing such a network efficiently is not a child’s play but still it is being managed. So we will look into its basics like organisation and some insight of equipments and other stuff used. “Even a one minute delay in train schedule has to be reported with reason” These were the lines by the teaching staff there.

        In other words what we see outside is just something but inside goes a complex process that ranges from finding solutions to operational difficulties,faults to ensuring repairs, maintaining schedule despite delays and stuffs like that. Even controlling traction(overhead wires) requires a complex network ranging from controlling it remotely to repairing it on the field (within specified time).

 

WEEK 2 : RAIL-NET

 

        Well after the ending of week one at Train Traffic Control starts week 2 at rail net.. Rail net refers to the public network through which railway connect to to public in general. Example are Passenger Reservation System (PRS), Indian Railway Freight Trains Reporting (FOIS) etc.

        A person reserving his tickets online does not know and hence can’t appreciate the difficulties and challenges in maintaining such huge network of railways nor he knows the complexities involved in such networks. While we did not go very deep into the topic, we definitely tried to touch the skin of the animal so as to give an idea about it. After all it is very complex and complex things require time and effort to understand.

 

WEEK 3 : UNRESERVED TICKETING SYSTEM (UTS)

 

        Oh my god!! “My tickets are not booked! How do we get to my home”. “No problem! we will go by general” replied his friend “Its not that our home is very far.” Then he goes to the station and buys a unreserved ticket. “Unreserved tickets” are valid for one day for any train provided the class or the type of train ticket is same. After all you can’t travel a super-fast train with a passenger ticket. But that also requires a centralised mechanism to store ticket number and data regarding it. There UTS comes into picture. It requires high speed network so it works on optical fibre cable.

        So, Let’s start. Since the trainer was very busy he could teach us only for a couple of days. So The material won’t be too much. Here we will primarily talk about the network regarding the UTS system.

 

WEEK 4 : LAB

 

           Well the week started with a big boom of students. The students suddenly increased from just me in Control to 3 in Railnet to around 7 in UTS to a whooping 24 in lab where the seating capacity was barely 6-7. It took some time adjusting students and then the classes continued as usual. Nevertheless the opening ceremony of that week was given by SSE/TELE/LAB himself.

      We learnt various instruments and other equipment and the techincal details about them. We also learnt about different components of various instruments used there. It was basically a practical experience of all the things we have done in other weeks.

For more detailed information kindly refer to my blog here.

For more information about all blogs I have written click here.

Rich Resources of SVNIT Surat

Reading Time: 2 minutes

 

1.       Facility to download IEEE Research Papers for no cost through SVNIT  Local Area Network

IEEE is The World’s largest professional association for the advancement of technology. For us, it is a very good platform to read about all Research Papers written for all branches of Electrical & Electronics Engineers. But you need to be a member of that particular IEEE society to be able to download and read the paper. But!!! Our college provided us access to IEEE papers from our campus. So if you connect to IEEE website from our college LAN then you can access and download the papers!!!

So wait for what?? Read the latest research papers on various IEEE Societies mentioned onhttp://www.ieee.org/membership_services/membership/societies/index.html

Link to IEEE Explore for seeing a Research Paper of your interest- http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/home.jsp

 

2.       Magazine and Journal Section in Central Library

Entering Central Library and on the second floor there is a Section for Magazines and journals for all branches which are the best way to stay in touch with the latest in technology. So go any explore your technical interest…..

 

3.       Reference Section 2nd Floor Central Library

We have a whole section of the best reference books for 100s different topics of all branches in our Reference Section. Avail that facility to read them and get your fundamentals crystal clear

 

4.       Digital Library – Store house of all well know Tech Journals ….

Go to svnit.ac.in -> Central Facility -> Central Library -> On Right Section Digital Library LINK

You need to login through our college LAN and then you can access various cool stuff like

E-BooksSpringler E-books, Cambridge University Press E-Book …….

E-JournalsScience DirectACM Digital Library, Institute of Civil Engineering Journals, Engineering Science Data Unit Series etc..

Purchased/Subscribed Standards

Previous Year Question Papers

21st Century: The Century of Human Brain !

Reading Time: 3 minutes

If 20th century was the century of war, then question arises : what’s gonna happen next ? Firstly, why we mark past century only by war, although they brought only miseries to the world? But if we deeply introspect the journey of technological advancement in world, (the technology which makes our life easier today) all came through furious bloody wars of 20th century. It was the time of World War I and World War II when the world saw technological advancement like never before. Each country wanted to utilize their resources up to the zenith. It was the environment of agony and competition which made some bright minds to invent something out of the box every time to stay ahead…
As we have entered in 21st century to some tiny extend, it’s time to think how we are going to shape this century. This past decade has pushed us to the world of internet, open source knowledge, liberation and globalization. Now we can easily judge, by undertaking the ongoing research works, what is going to happen next!!
We are witnessing a trend in which all hardware’s size are on decrease. Computers which were made short ago to occupy a whole room, now finds our pockets big enough. Punching cards were replaced by buttons and now buttons are all set to be replaced by the Sixth Sense technology (yeah that’s what is the best of Pranav Mistry). But wait, that’s just a start of 21st century. Research shows us that we are going to replace all these sort of thing by just developing or realizing the power of human brain.
We are near the times when we will be able to control all our daily stuffs by just thinking in our brain.Electronics and Computing will collaborate with Neural Science to bring technological advancement which we even can’t think about. We will be able to store out memories out our body, we will be able to control remote machine or robots by just a couple of thoughts. These times will witness competition between countries about the extent of human brain study and research.
Today, we are not having any substantial and structured theory of human brain. But through extensive research going over it’s study by using Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) and taking case study of many medical cases, we can hope of such theory coming soon. Looking to the potential of field many parts of world has started research in this area. In University of Pittsburgh, scientist had succeeded in a experiment over a monkey, in which monkey controls a robotic arm by brain signals assisted by BCI. There are various cases in which scientist are able to bring back the lost sense or body parts by using BCI through which the patients were able to control a electronic sense or organ just as a normal human do it by his brain. In commercial world, a game company has already launched a product in which a player can control a game just by thoughts (www.emotiv.com). Further, IBM predicts it will be making “mind-controlled” PC’s within next five years. So now we can definitely hope for drastic future development. And projects like Human Brain Project of European Countries (www.humanbrainproject.eu ) will boost the research work to unlock various mysteries of human brain.
Below are some links to show you some glimpse of that. So be ready to witness the century where it is all about to study the huge potential of THE HUMAN BRAIN.

Wikipedia: Brain-computer Interface

Extra Edgy Things For All Engineers

Reading Time: 3 minutes
World Class Education Websites :- 

1.) edX.org

2.) coursera.org

3.) NPTEL.ac.in (watch at 1.5 x speed )

 

Internship and Workshop : Companies

 

1.) I3 Indiya

2.) Wegilant( Speacilized in Cyber Security)

3.) Robosapiens

4.) Technophilia

5.) Thinkware (Good for Matlab)

6.) Thinklabs

7.) Waayoo

8.) Learnics.in

9.) Logicbrigade.com

10.) STP.mbsgroup.in-(Also Has Course on F1 Car Design and Development)

 

To-Do Projects :-

 

Electronics Engineering

1.) SMPS

2.) POV

3.) LED CUBE

4.) FM Receiver

5.) Line Follower

6.) Temperature Controlled Fan

7.) Phone Jammer

8.) 555 Timer Projects

9.) Raspberry Pi

 

Mechanical Engineering

1.) Robotic Arm

2.) RC Plane

3.) Hovercraft

4.) Wall Climbing Robot

5.) Rope Climbing Robot

6.) Pole Climbing Robot

7.)Tricopter/Quadcopter

8.) Hydraulic Lift Arm

 

Chemical

1.) Batteries: Batteries of Your Own, like

  • Galvanic Cell
  • Zinc Air Battery
  • Al Air Battery
  • Al CU Battery

2.) Propulsion System: Car using

  • Vinegar+ Baking Soda
  • Decomposition of H2O2

3.) Search On MFC-Microbial Fuel Cell

4.) Research Alternate Source of Energy like Jatropha Seeds

 

 

 

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Electrical Engineering

1.) Power Generation from Moving Vehicles

2.) Power Theft Protection

3.) Booster Circuit

4.) Inverter Circuit

 

Civil Engineering

1.) Cardboard Model Building

2.) Designing On Softwares

3) Some Famous Civil Engineering Projects – Bridges, Tunnels and Dams

 

Computer Engineering

1.)Read: A Complete Reference to Java by Herbert Schildt

2.) Make Applets

3.) Android App Development

4.) Game Development

5.) AI-Artificial Intelligence: – Course on edX

6.) Read HTML: – HTML-5 for Web Development

7.) PHP

8.) Hacking

9.) Android- Learn to Root, Flash

10.) Google about Crack Paid Software using Decompiler and Disassembler!!!

11) Read  “C Programming Language” written by the creator of C – Dennis Ritchie

 

 

Extra-Edge Software

 

Civil

1.) Revit

2.) AutoCad

 

Computer Engineering

1.) Android App Development-IDE:-Eclipse

2.) Game Development Softwares

3.) Hacking-Backtrack OS

 

Chemical Engineering

1.) Aspen

2.) Super Pro Designer

3.) Open Foam

4.) Chemsketch

 

Mechanical Engineering

1.) Autodesk- AutoCad

2.)  Inventor

3.) Pro-e

4.) Google Sketch-Up

 

Electrical Engineering

1.) E-tap

2.) Matlab

3.) LabView

4.) PSCAD

5.) Simulink

6.) Lapack-Numerical Linear Algebra

 

Electronics

1.) MultiSim

2.) Proteus: Ckt and AVR MCU Simulation

3.) Eagle: PCB Designing

4.) Matlab: Mother of all things-

       Image Processing,Computer Vision,Control System Simulation, Digital Signal Processing

5.) NI’s LabView

 

Magazines

1.) ECE  – EFY

2.) Mech- Top Gear, Overdrive, AutoCar

3.) Chem- Chemical Engineering, World,Chemical Industry Digest

4.) Comps- Digit, Chip

5.) Electrical- Industrial Automation (IED Communications),IET(generation transmission and distribution)

 

Tech Fests

Even Semester

1.) IIT Bombay -Techfest Jan first week

2.) IIT Madras -Shaastra   Jan first week

3.) IIT Kharagpur -Kshitij Feb first week

4.) NIT Trichi-Pragyan-Feb End

5.) IIT Kanpur -TechKriti   March Mid

6.)BITS Pilani -Apogee   March Mid

7.) IIIT Hyderabad -Felicity

8.) IIT Roorkee -Cognizance

 

Odd Sem

1.) NIT Surathkal-Engineer – October End

2.) NIT Warangal-Technozion-   September End

 

God Father Sites

 

1.) http://www.howstuffworks.com/(Discovery’s Site-More of general Science)

2.) http://www.engineersgarage.com/

3.) http://www.extremeelectronics.com

4.) http://www.circuitstoday.com/

5.) www.societyofrobots.com (The best according to me)

6.) http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/

7.) http://www.ece101.com/

8.) http://narobo.com/

9.) http://www.pyroelectro.com/

10.) http://students.iitk.ac.in/roboclub/tutorials.php

 

Electrical Engineering

1.) controleng.com

2.) control.com

3.) electric.net

4.) controlglobal.com

 

Mechanical Engineering

1.) pirate4x4.com

2.) carbibles.com

3.) SudhaCars.com

 

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Computer Engineering

1.) code.org

2.) codechef.com

3.) spoj.com

4.) Java Applets-http://walter-fendt.de/ph14e/

 

Others

1.) internshala.com

2.) knowafest.com

3.) twenty19.com

 

 

Sites to buy robotics stuff

In India:

1.) http://nex-robotics.com/

2.) http://www.robokits.co.in/

3.) http://www.vegarobokit.com/

4.) http://www.rcbazaar.com/default.aspx

5.) http://www.rcdhamaka.com/

 

World best online robotics store:

1.) Jameco

2.) Solarbotics

3.) Digi-key

4.) Radioshack.com

 

Movies

1.) Gravity

2.) October Sky

3.) Iron Man-1, 2, 3

4.) Wall-E

5.) Batman

6.) G I Joe-1, 2

7.) Transformers-1, 2, 3

8.) The Social Network

9.) Avatar

10.) Real Steel

11.) Pirates of Silicon Valley

12.) Blade Runner

13.) 2002: A Space Odyssey

TELEVISION SHOWS

 

Discovery, Discovery Science, Discovery Turbo

1.) How Tech Works

2.) Dark matters

3.) Extreme Engineering

4.) Deconstructed

 

History TV

1.) Modern Marvels

 

NatGeo TV

1.) Big, Bigger, Biggest

2.) MegaStructures

3.) MegaFactories

4.) I Didn’t Know That

5.) Ultimate Factories

6.) Mega Factories

 

 

Mindbend Indeaz -Some Problems & Basic & Best Solution

Reading Time: 6 minutes

Artificial Growth of algae & subsequent drain of nitrogen based chemicals.

  • While searching for technical solution, one has to keep in mind that technology should not induce other problems while solving one problem.
  • Also when we say water management it’s not controlling our limit of use but to artificially induce natural recycle process by studying nature. The best way to tackle waste is to match it with waste utilization. Manipulation of waste is like shifting it from one system to another without actually reducing the same.
  • Here I will be talking on a method that study natural water recycling method and adoption of the same instead of chemical processes which solve one problem and create another.

Eutrophication:-

  • Eutrophication can be human-caused or natural. Untreated sewage effluent and agricultural run-off carrying fertilizers are examples of human-caused eutrophication. However, it also occurs naturally in situations where nutrients accumulate (e.g. depositional environments), or where they flow into systems on an ephemeral basis. Eutrophication generally promotes excessive plant growth and decay, favoring simple algae and plankton over other more complicated plants, and causes a severe reduction in water quality. Phosphorus is a necessary nutrient for plants to live, and is the limiting factor for plant growth in many freshwater ecosystems. The addition of phosphorus increases algal growth, but not all phosphates actually feed algae. These algae assimilate the other necessary nutrients needed for plants and animals. When algae die they sink to the bottom where they are decomposed and the nutrients contained in organic matter are converted into inorganic form by bacteria. The decomposition process uses oxygen and deprives the deeper waters of oxygen which can kill fish and other organisms. Also the necessary nutrients are all at the bottom of the aquatic ecosystem and if they are not brought up closer to the surface, where there is more available light allowing for photosynthesis for aquatic plants, a serious strain is placed on algae populations. Enhanced growth of aquatic vegetation or phytoplankton and algal blooms disrupts normal functioning of the ecosystem, causing a variety of problems such as a lack of oxygen needed for fish and shellfish to survive. The water becomes cloudy, typically colored a shade of green, yellow, brown, or red.
  • Naturally Algal blooms occur when excess of plant nutrient (Nitrates & Phosphates) is available in the water-A natural cleansing process.
  • These blooms have been found to destroy fishes in fresh water because of the low oxygen level initiated by planktons feeding on algae after death at the lower water level.
  • It has been found that the root cause of imbalance in water is excess of nitrates & phosphates. So the target should be root cause.
  • Thus we could encourage algal growth for nitrate reduction outside the fresh water body & thereby decrease the nitrate & phosphate level and also increase food for planktons /phosphorous fixating bacterias/nitrogen fixating bacterias-which are then eaten by marine life-A natural phenomenon initiated artificially.
  • The excess of algae may be used as a bio-diesel or may be fed by phytoplankton to zooplanktons to small fishes to large fishes & the eco-logic continues.
  • Well traditionally ion exchange methods used in industries are used for nitrate reduction however nitrates do not go away from system they are just removed from water source & they appear in other system.eg:-

In ion-exchange resins the nitrate ion is removed from water source by exchanging with chloride ions. After the exchange the nitrates present in the resin bed are exchanged with HCL to regenerate resin producing HNO3 .thus we see that still overall system –the eco-system has nitrates still left & will somehow or other reappear. Also the chlorides that we exchanged are also as dangerous as nitrates if present in large quantity. So any chemical process is a curtain to existing problem it no longer solves problem as a whole. A bio-chemical process is therefore best by observing nature.

  • Also biological dentrification is used in which nitrates are converted to Nitrogen gas.
  • The process is similar to denitrification done by anaerobic bacterias but those require organic food in plenty to convert nitrates ultimately each natural process comes down to bacteria and microbes level as they are natural scavengers but those attract pests and rodents bad odor etc.

Disadvantage:-

  • The time algal growth requires, the time planktons & other organism requires to complete a food-web is high .hence this system may be only used in areas where there is no continuous addition of nitrates-small industries letting off waste in 5 days, a farming site where agricultural run-off carries phosphates & nitrates during rainy season, a waste water treatment plant having large base for each pond for cultivation.

Use of reflectors as flyers controlled by the control station to reflect the amount of power in a cellular structure:-

  • In a cellular structure the transmitting & receiver (duplex antenna) is one that radiates micro-waves for mobile communication. Generally in urban areas where concentration of mobile phones is very high the towers are placed on residential towers or offices or shops etc.
  • There is a growing debate on whether the electromagnetic exposure can cause tumors or cancer. Although few researchers have shown the opposite but practically over exposure to micro-waves can definitely lead to a disorder because these waves tend to heat the body temperature when they pass through our body. The tissues break in to cells creating disorder in the body due to high temperature.
  • Even though limits of radiation are standardized by government ,continuous exposure is dangerous for all of us. people living near towers face high dangers of exposure while people far away likely do not .since power density of the antenna is high near the antenna & starts reducing as the distance increases.
  • So we can direct a high powered beam of radiations towards a secondary tower flying in the sky over a cellular structure at heights calculated for power required & that can be used as a transmitter receiver to be communicated with the base station.
  • This will always ensure uniform power spread & the affect of heat effect of micro-waves would be reduced.
  • This will ensure constant power density on surface of earth (exceptions hills, mountains etc.) to be used for purpose of communication rather than concentrated power density.

 

Disadvantages:-

  1. Mobile base station makers will have to share extra costs for making new equipment controllable from control tower as well.
  2. Finding out space in the sky for installing each such station over which we can place the flying station which will not be interfered by birds, airplanes, ionosphere reflection, etc.

Possibility/Feasibility:-

A free wireless internet service for developing economies called “Project Loon” was announced by Google & initially was surveyed in New-Zealand by a farmer for wireless internet by sending balloons carrying transponders receptors & efficient mechanism for looming around a particular region just like a geo-synchronous satellite. This will also be in India, South-Africa.

An ICT model for empowering rural population:-

Our government spends 60000 crore in Nrega-a scheme which is aimed at providing opportunities for employment in 100 days. A worker from rural area is made to toil for breaking stones & he gets his income from that. With bundles of corruption, this scheme neither utilizes individual potential of a farmer, a child, a painter, a porter goldsmith etc. to meet their expenses rural public do .Instead of this each village can have a “centre of internet” where everything that an urban Indian gets rural India also has.

 

  • Healthcare:

Supply of generic medicines as when needed, supply essential supplements for maternal ,child health through a WLAN connections each in one village, asking possible diagnostic questions to doctors who are unwilling to go to rural side, people will tell their day to day activities & doctors would suggest diseases that can occur or a database of diseases in different languages.

  • Entrepreneurship:

Popularity of village & direct details of those involved in sale of those materials online.

  • Current trends of market:

Current Wheat, Rice, Moong, etc. to give farmers a fare share of their products

Giving their new inventions on web may be integrated with National Innovation Foundation (NIF).

  • Education.

 

CEV - Handout