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Hyperverse

Reading Time: 3 minutes

Hyperverse is a game inspired by the concept of the metaverse. It combines many metaverses linked to form a single component, opening the door for a revolutionary virtual experience.

In the Hyperverse, players, also known as voyagers, can connect with friends, experience different cultures, create tokenized items, run businesses, and explore the universe.

Hyperverse is a New York-based company that offers a virtual reality experience distribution platform. It was founded by Roman Mikhailov and Arsen Avdalyan in January 2016.

Features:

  • Virtual Experience: It allows players to clone themselves and experience the virtual life that Hyperverse offers.
  • Tokenized in-game items: Virtually anything within the hyperverse can be traded as NFT coins.
  • Space expedition: Form groups for interstellar voyages to explore unknown space and planets.
  • Decentralized: Trade tokenized real-world stocks, options, contracts, and EFTs

ADVANTAGES OF USING CRYPTO AS IN-GAME CURRENCY:

Hyperverse

Digital proof of ownership:

By owning a wallet with access to your private keys, you can instantly prove ownership of an activity or an asset on the blockchain. A wallet is one of the most secure and robust methods for establishing a digital identity and proof of ownership.

Digital collectability:

Just as we can establish who owns something, we can also show that an item is original and unique. Through NFTs, we can create unique objects that can never be forged.

Transfer of value:

In-game currencies in multiplayer games are less secure than crypto on a blockchain. If users spend a lot of time in the metaverse and earn money there, they will need a reliable currency.

Governance:

In real life, we can have voting rights in companies and elect leaders and governments. The metaverse will also need ways to implement fair governance, and blockchain takes care of that.

Accessibility:

Creating a wallet is open to anyone around the world on public blockchains. Unlike a bank account, you don’t need to pay any money or provide any details. This is a considerable advantage in managing your finances effectively.

HOW HYPERVERSE DEVELOPERS FUND THE DEVELOPMENT OF HYPERVERSE:

The developers promised people who invest in hyperverse to triple their invested money. They convert the investor’s money USDT, a stable crypto coin, into HU, an in-game currency known as hyper unit per day. Hyperverse has raised over $530k in total.

WHAT HYPERVERSE IS?

It’s one of the most well-thought scams which hides its true intention very effectively. It’s a Ponzi scheme which is also known as a pyramid scheme. But investors can easily fall into this scam without realizing it because of its well-designed system.

 

To Enroll within hyperverse, you need to purchase a membership that seems no threat to the average eye but is designed to hide the Ponzi scheme the investor is getting into.

 

The investor is promised to get their investment tripled within 600 days. How it is tripled is kept unclear, and once the investor falls into the greed trap, they are trapped in a commitment of 600 days.

 

They have lured investors with reviews and success members of the hyperverse with comments like, “I know two people who invested in HYPERVERSE, and they’re doing great. One put in 400 k, and he’s paying for a 15-million-dollar estate. The other put in 30k, and he’s already pulled out his initial investment. I’m doing great myself going well so far.”

 

Hyperverse is a scam by Ryan Zou and Sam Lee, who have been involved in disgusting scams like these several times.

Conclusion:

With the rapid growth of cryptocurrency, it has become easier for scammers to scam people. Investors should be cautious before investing in crypto-based projects without full knowledge of how and why their investment will grow the promised amount and should consult experts for safe and profitable investments.

Space Travel- The New Era of Tourism

Reading Time: 6 minutes

SPACE…….the word that amazes us to date. We all have dreams about going to space and seeing the bewildering site from high above. But many of us couldn’t follow that dream. Only a few of us who became astronauts got a real opportunity to do so.

For those who couldn’t go, science came to the rescue and has made space travel for civilians possible.

Even if the concept of space tourism seems afresh, it was first in mid-2001 when Dennis Tito, the American businessman, became the first space tourist and spend nearly 8 days in space.

Where have we reached till now?

The advent of space tourism occurred at the end of the 1990s when Russian company MirCorp and the American company Space Adventures Ltd came together and decided to sell a trip to Dennis Tito in order to generate revenue for the maintenance of the Mir space station which MirCorp was in charge of. Tito became the first paying passenger, who paid $20 million for a roughly 8-day expedition.

Orbital space tourism continued to grow following Tito’s mission, with flights to the ISS by South African computer millionaire Mark Shuttleworth in 2002, Gregory Olsen in 2005, Anousheh Ansari in September 2006, and many more

Space Travel- The New Era of Tourism
(Dennis Tito’s space exploration)

Different types of space flights:

We can classify the type of space flights passengers can enjoy into two divisions, namely suborbital and orbital.

1)Suborbital Spaceflight

These flights aim to reach an astonishing altitude of over 300,000 feet, reaching the Karman line where outer space begins. Currently, there are two major companies targeting this type of flight, Virgin Galactic, part of Richard Branson’s empire, and Blue Origin, run by Amazon’s billionaire founder Jeff Bezos.

2)Orbital Spaceflight

Orbital ones would be completely different than suborbital ones, which last up to a few minutes. These spaceflights strive for giving the passenger an exotic journey of a few days to a week in space over 1.3 million feet. The final quarter of 2021 is likely to be huge for tourists in orbital spaceflight, with two major companies Space Adventures and Axiom Space announcing up to nine seats to orbit available for purchase by either individuals or organizations

But orbital spaceflight has its own challenges of providing boarding for a few days to passengers in space. Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) is the only habitable structure, but many companies are looking for a breakthrough.

Why Space tourism?

It is easy to dismiss a plan such as that of space tourism which is a luxury that only the rich can afford, but there are certain advantages to it that each part of the society might experience.

1)It is a dream project to work on.

From the onset of space tourism, it is only growth that we have seen in the frequency of space flight. This will automatically create a boom as job opportunities will be created in every sector known. And who won’t like to work on a project that is related to SPACE!!!

2)The cost will definitely go down

Even if space tourism seems costly now, we will surely see a decrease in cost. The reason behind this is that we could create a space shuttle having more capacity so the cost per person reduces.

Comparing the same situation with the airplanes, when once they used to be a mode of travel for the upper class people in the society, but then, as the aviation sector boomed, the prices of the airplane tickets went down significantly and finally any common man is now able to afford the same.

3)Space tourism will not be a complete disaster

Most of us are still concerned regarding the environmental imbalance that space tourism may cause. Fortunately, Blue Origin’s New Shepard produces only water as an exhaust, which took care of the global warming that rockets caused earlier. Also, Elon Musk has declared his intention to produce methane fuel directly from the atmosphere using solar power, assuring that the fuel cycle is carbon neutral.

4)Increase in space exploration and experiments held in space

When Dennis Tito went to space, he conducted a scientific experiment up in space on the behalf of a lab. This shows that space tourism will not only support scientific exploration but also open avenues for advanced technology to be created because of the demand created due to this massive boom.

Challenges Confronting Space Tourism

1)Cost:

Cost is one of the biggest challenges as such space travel by tourists is limited only to rich people till now. OECD space agencies have spent approximately $1 trillion since 1961. As a consequence, unless there is a reduction in costs as far as technology allows, space agencies’ role in the future development and exploration of space is likely to shrink progressively. Ultimately, by reduction of cost, the development of space travel will lead to the permanent and progressive expansion of human culture into space.

2)Lack of understanding:

One of the other challenges space tourism faces, is that it is still not well understood by the general public. This lack of understanding by the general public poses a marketing challenge. Advertisement largely relies on what is essentially word-of-mouth advertising.

3)Environmental challenges:

Space tourism poses a grave environmental challenge to mankind. The pollution caused due to the launching of space shuttles and rockets is enormous. Consequently, the amount of pollution will rise and the amount of debris in the space will reach a dangerous level. This will contribute to global warming and the harmful effects of it will be borne by the poor people who have no stake in the development of space tourism.

Space Travel- The New Era of Tourism
(space junk)

What’s next?

Currently, space tourism is on course to being developed as a model of space adventure, though with some potential concerns. Space tourism is in its pioneering phase where customers will be very few, and the cost will still be fairly high. As companies like SpaceX test reusable rocket technology to make spaceflight more affordable and accessible for humans, other private firms, including Virgin Galactic and Blue Origin, are investing in suborbital space tourism to take Earthlings into the very edge of space and back. There are prospects in the future for the start of sub-orbital passenger space flight operations from newly developed commercial spaceports. More next-generation engineers will enter the space tourism sector for the scope of opportunities and innovation, eventually decreasing the barriers to entry that will increase competition, lower the costs, and ultimately democratize space travel for everyday citizens. Some companies have their sights set on venturing even further, with aspirations of building the first orbital space hotel. While only uber-wealthy passengers and private researchers will have access to space tourism in the immediate future, the long-term holds promise for ordinary citizens.

 

Conclusion

It can be concluded that space tourism is at a nascent stage and many challenges need to be solved before flowering the space tourism industry. Certainly, the progress made by the space tourism industry in the last several years has been uneven, and arguably at a slower pace than hoped for. The industry in general, may have made some mistakes and lost some opportunities along the way, but it is equally necessary to analyze enhancing procedures to make individuals understand prospective market niche and depth in space tourism. Recognition of required future technologies is equally vital considering that the industry is a multi-million-dollar investment. The growth of space tourism is going to have a huge benefit and cultural effect, which will widen human horizons, as its appropriate for the 21st century. Tourism isn’t just going to be a small part of future space activity; it is going to be the mainstream space activity. The sweet escape to the stars can eventually manifest the awe-inspiring potential of space exploration while also giving us a better appreciation of our home.

The Combat Uniform

Reading Time: 4 minutes

As you all know army uniform is changed recently on Jan 15 which was Army day and here we have given some insight on this new uniform.

  • The New Combat Uniform has been designed by the National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) in close coordination with the Army.
  • The uniform was designed by a team of 12 people which included seven professors, three students, and two alumni. 
  • The Combat Uniform was created through a consultative process with the Army, keeping in mind the “4Cs” — comfort, climate, camouflage, and confidentiality.
The Combat Uniform

Purpose:

The uniform has been designed to serve two requirements: 

a) protection against harsh climatic conditions, including extreme heat and cold

b) To provide soldiers’ outfits with field camouflage, so as to increase battlefield survivability.

The digital descriptive pattern:  It’s the new trend in camouflage designs to have a lot of little random squares instead of a lot of huge random squiggles. Any camouflage pattern created with the help of a computer is referred to as “digital camouflage.” You feed the computer information on what colours to expect and in what percentages, and the computer generates a pattern. This design is refined and refined until it is attractive to the eye.

The Combat Uniform

History:

Digital camouflage provides a disruptive effect through the use of pixellated patterns at a range of scales, meaning that the camouflage helps to defeat observation at a range of distances. Such patterns were first developed during the Second World War, when Johann Georg Otto Schick designed a number of patterns for the Waffen-SS, combining micro- and macro-patterns in one scheme. The German Army and The Soviet Army developed the idea further more.

Later US Army officer Timothy R. O’Neill suggested that patterns consisting of square blocks of colour would provide effective camouflage. By 2000, O’Neill’s idea was combined with patterns like the German Flecktarn to create pixellated patterns such as CADPAT and MARPAT. Battledress in digital camouflage patterns was first designed by the Canadian Forces. The “digital” refers to the coordinates of the pattern, which are digitally defined. The term is also used of computer generated patterns like the non-pixellated Multicam and the Italian fractal Vegetato pattern. Pixellation does not in itself contribute to the camouflaging effect. The pixellated style, however, simplifies design and eases printing on fabric.

The Combat Uniform

Improvements:

The main changes in the new uniform, compared to the old one that has been in use since 2008, are with regard to the camouflage pattern, design, and the use of a new material. While the new unique camouflage pattern retains the combination of the same colours — olive green and earthen shades — the pattern is digital now. It has been designed keeping in mind the many kinds of operational conditions that the soldiers function in, from deserts to high-altitude areas, jungles and plains. The fabric for the new material makes it lighter, sturdier, more breathable, and more suitable for the different terrains that soldiers are posted in. The cotton-to-polyester ratio is 70:30, making it quicker to dry, more comfortable to wear in humid and hot conditions, and lightweight. According to the Army, it is an ergonomically designed, operationally effective, new-generation camouflage combat uniform. The fabric is 15 per cent lighter, and has 23 per cent more strength against tearing, against the current uniform.

The ergonomic features allow for long-hour use and comfort, and micro features are inbuilt for the use of the wearer in field conditions. The new uniform has a mix of Olive Green and earthy colours for better camouflage and the fabric is durable, sturdier and lighter than the ones used earlier. 

The pattern of the Indian Army’s new uniform is widely used by troops abroad and is engineered to withstand tough conditions like harsh temperatures, explosive bursts, and fluctuating air pressures and is supposed to provide the soldiers more comfort. The new combat uniform is also eco-friendly. It even resembles the modified version of the Canadian CADPAT camouflage pattern that was rolled out to the US Army, US Airmen in the Middle East and Air Force Global Strike Command security forces.  

James Webb Space Telescope

Reading Time: 12 minutes

INTRODUCTION

The curiosity about what was there 13.5 billion years ago and the search for the habitable planets might end. On 25th December 2021, NASA launched their massive 10 billion dollar endeavor, which will help humans look for what was there and what surprises the universe holds for us. The expensive James Webb Space telescope, simply called Webb, is named after James E. Webb, who served as the second administrator of NASA during the 60s and oversaw U.S. crewed missions throughout the Mercury and Gemini programs.
 

The JWST or Webb is a space telescope which is developed by NASA in collaboration with the European Space Agency and Canadian Space Agency. It will complement the Hubble space telescope and is optimized for the wavelengths in the infrared region. The JWST is 100 times more powerful than it. The diameter of the optical mirror of Webb is 6.5 meters making its collecting area 6.25 times more than Hubble. The Webb consists of 18 hexagonal adjustable mirrors made of gold-plated beryllium with just 48.2 grams of gold, about the same weight as a golf ball. Since the telescope is operating in the infrared region, the temperature around it needs to be very low to prevent the overwhelming of the sensors by the heat from the Sun, the Earth, and the heat emitted by its parts’. To overcome that the special material called Kapton with a coating of aluminum is used such that, one side facing the sun and earth would be around 85 degrees celsius while the other side would be 233 degrees Celsius below zero. Also, the problem of keeping the instrument’s temperature at an optimal level is solved by using liquid helium as the coolant. The telescope is going to have 50 major deployments and 178 release mechanisms for the smooth functioning of the satellite. The Webb was launched on Ariane 5 from Kourou in French Guiana and will take six months to become fully operational and is expected to work for 10 years.

 

The JWST project was being planned for 30 years and had to face many delays and cost overruns. The first planning was carried out in 1989 whose main mission was to “think about a major mission beyond Hubble”. There were many cost overruns and project delays throughout the making of the telescope. There were also many budget changes throughout the period. The original budget for making the telescope was going to be US$1.6 billion. Which was then estimated to be US$ 5 million by the time construction started in 2008. By 2010, the JWST project almost got shelved due to the huge budgets until November 2011 when Congress reversed the plan to discontinue JWST and set the cap of the funding at US$ 8 billion.

 

The telescope has been launched to study the early planets and galaxies formed after the Big Bang. The telescope would also help in finding out the formation of new planets and galaxies. The US Congress capped its funding to US$ 6 million.

ORBIT OF THE TELESCOPE

Being an infrared telescope, the position of the telescope in space is crucial for its desired operation. The telescope has to be as far as possible from the sun so that the sun’s infrared ways don’t interfere with the telescope’s instruments as well as not being too far away from the earth to stay in contact with NASA all the time. So NASA decided to put the telescope in Lagrange point 2 of the sun-earth system. So the question arises what is a Lagrange point and what is its importance. Let’s go back and learn how Lagrange and Euler discover these points in space. The Lagrange points are points of equilibrium for small-mass objects under the influence of two massive orbiting bodies. Mathematically, this involves the solution of the restricted three-body problem in which two bodies are very much more massive than the third. These points are named after the French Italian mathematician and astronomer Joseph-Louis Lagrange who discovered the Lagrange points L4 and L5 in 1772 but the first 3 points were discovered by Swiss Mathematician and Astronomer Leonhard Euler in 1772.

 

Joseph-Louis Lagrange was an Italian mathematician and astronomer. He made significant contributions to the fields of analysis, number theory, and both classical and celestial mechanics. In 1766, on the recommendation of Swiss Leonhard Euler and French d’Alembert, Lagrange succeeded Euler as the director of mathematics at the Prussian Academy of Sciences in Berlin, Prussia, where he stayed for over twenty years, producing volumes of work and winning several prizes of the French Academy of Sciences. Lagrange’s treatise on analytical mechanics written in Berlin and first published in 1788, offered the most comprehensive treatment of classical mechanics since Newton and formed a basis for the development of mathematical physics in the nineteenth century

Lagrange was one of the creators of the calculus of variations, deriving the Euler–Lagrange equations for extrema of functionals. He extended the method to include possible constraints, arriving at the method of Lagrange multipliers. Lagrange invented the method of solving differential equations known as variation of parameters, applied differential calculus to the theory of probabilities, and worked on solutions for algebraic equations. In calculus, Lagrange developed a novel approach to interpolation and Taylor theorem. He studied the three-body problem for the Earth, Sun, and Moon (1764) and the movement of Jupiter’s satellites (1766), and in 1772 found the special-case solutions to this problem that yield what are now known as Lagrangian points. Lagrange is best known for transforming Newtonian mechanics into a branch of analysis, Lagrangian mechanics, and presented the mechanical “principles” as simple results of the variational calculus.

 

Normally, the two massive bodies exert an unbalanced gravitational force at a point, altering the orbit of whatever is at that point. At the Lagrange points, the gravitational forces of the two large bodies and the centrifugal force balance each other. This can make Lagrange points an excellent location for satellites, as few orbit corrections are needed to maintain the desired orbit. L1, L2, and L3 are on the line through the centers of the two large bodies, while L4 and L5 each act as the third vertex of an equilateral triangle formed with the centers of the two large bodies. L4 and L5 are stable, which implies that objects can orbit around them in a rotating coordinate system tied to the two large bodies. Now the magic of L2 point is that it is behind the earth and the sun thus if we want to view the night sky without the earth’s intervention when can do it from this point and since it is in the Lagrange point it is orbiting in the same speed as the earth so it can be in continuous communication with the earth through the Deep Space Network using 3 large antennas on the ground located in Australia, Spain, and the USA and can uplink command sequence and downlink data up to twice per day and use minimal fuel to stay in the orbit thus increasing the lifespan of the mission.

 

The telescope is going to be 1.5 million km away from the earth and will circle about the L2 point in a halo orbit, which will be inclined with respect to the ecliptic, have a radius of approximately 800,000 km, and take about half a year to complete. Since L2 is just an equilibrium point with no gravitational pull, a halo orbit is not an orbit in the usual sense: the spacecraft is actually in orbit around the Sun, and the halo orbit can be thought of as controlled drifting to remain in the vicinity of the L2 point. It will take the telescope roughly 30 days to reach the start of its orbit in L2.

 

Unlike the Hubble telescope which can be easily serviced in case of damage, the James Webb Space Telescope cannot be repaired/serviced due to its significant distance(1.5 million km) from earth even more than the most distance traveled by the astronauts during the Apollo 13 mission in which they traveled to the far side of the moon which is approximately 400,000 km from earth. Therefore this is one of the riskiest missions in human history with 344 single points failure could lead to the end of the mission and years of research and hard work of thousands of scientists down the drain.

PARTS OF TELESCOPE

NIRCam:

INTRODUCTION:

NIRCam (Near-infrared camera) is an instrument that is part of the James Webb Space Telescope. The main tasks of this instrument include first as an imager from 0.6 to 5-micron wavelength, and second is as a wavefront sensor to keep 18 section mirrors functioning as one. It is an infrared camera with ten mercury-cadmium-telluride (HgCdTe) detector arrays, and each array has an array of 2048×2048 pixels. Also, NIRCam has coronagraphs which are normally used for collecting data on exoplanets near stars. NIRCam should be able to observe as faint as magnitude +29 with a 10000-second exposure (about 2.8 hours). It makes these observations in light from 0.6 (600 nm) to 5 microns (5000 nm) wavelength.

 

COMPONENTS:

The main components of NirCam are coronagraph, first fold mirror, collimator Pupil imaging lens, senses, dichroic beam splitter, Longwave focal plane, Shortwave filter wheel assembly, Shortwave camera lens group, Shortwave fold mirror, Shortwave focal plane

 

DESIGN:

NIRCam is designed by the University of Arizona, company Lockheed Martin, and Teledyne Technologies, in cooperation with the U.S. Space Agency, NASA. NIRCam has been designed to be efficient for surveying through the use of dichroic.

 

WORKING:

The Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) is Webb’s primary imager that will cover the infrared wavelength range of 0.6 to 5 microns. NIRCam will detect light from the earliest stars and galaxies in the process of formation, the population of stars in nearby galaxies, as well as young stars in the Milky Way and Kuiper Belt objects.  NIRCam is equipped with coronagraphs, instruments that allow astronomers to take pictures of very faint objects around a central bright object, like stellar systems. NIRCam’s coronagraph works by blocking a brighter object’s light, making it possible to view the dimmer object nearby – just like shielding the sun from your eyes with an upraised hand can allow you to focus on the view in front of you. With the coronagraphs, astronomers hope to determine the characteristics of planets orbiting nearby stars.

James Webb Space Telescope

NIRSpec:

INTRODUCTION:

The NIRSpec (near-infrared spectrograph) is one of the four instruments which is flown with the James Webb space telescope. The main purpose of developing the NIRSpec is to get more information about the origins of the universe by observing the infrared light from the first stars and galaxies. This will also help in allowing us to look further back in time and will study the so-called Dark Ages during which the universe was opaque, about 150 to 800 million years after the Big Bang.

 

COMPONENTS:

Coupling optics, fore optics TMA, calibration mirror 1 and2, calibration assembly, filter wheel assembly, refocus mechanism assembly, micro shutter assembly, integral field unit, fold mirror, collimator TMA, grating wheel assembly, camera TMA, focal plane assembly, SIDECAR ASIC, optical assembly internal harness.

 

MICROSHUTTER:

Micro shutters are tiny windows with shutters that each measure 100 by 200 microns, or about the size of a bundle of only a few human hairs. The micro shutter device can select many objects in one viewing for simultaneous high-resolution observation which means much more scientific investigation can be done in less time. The micro shutter device is that it can select many objects in one viewing for simultaneous observation and it is programmable for any field of objects in the sky. The micro shutter is a key component in the NIRSpec instrument. Micro shutter is also known as arrays of tiny windows.

 

James Webb Space Telescope

FINE GUIDANCE SENSOR:

INTRODUCTION:

The fine guidance sensor (FGS) is a typical instrument board on a James Webb space telescope, this provides high precision pointing information as input to the telescope’s attitude control systems. FGS provides input for the observatory’s attitude control system (ACS). During on-orbit commissioning of the JWST, the FGS will also provide pointing error signals during activities to achieve alignment and phasing of the segments of the deployable primary mirror.

 

COMPONENTS:

THE FGS don’t have that much complex structure. so the following are the main components of FGS:- The large structure housing a collection of mirrors, lenses, servos, prisms, beam-splitters, photomultiplier tubes.

 

WORKING:

The FGS has mainly three functions in which this instrument was planted in our telescope:

1) TO obtain images for target acquisition. Full-frame images are used to identify star fields by correlating the observed brightness and position of sources with the properties of cataloged objects selected by the observation planning software

2) Acquire pre-selected guide stars. During acquisition, a guide star is first centered in an 8 × 8 pixel window.

3)  Provide the ACS with centroid measurements of the guide stars at a rate of 16 times per second.

 

DESIGN:

 

James Webb Space Telescope
James Webb Space Telescope

MIRI:

The mid-infrared instrument is used in the detection process of the James Webb Space Telescope. Uses camera as well as a spectroscope, in detection helps in detection from 5 microns to 28 microns of radiation to observe such a large range of wavelength we use Detectors made up of Germanium doped with arsenic these detectors are termed as Focus plane modules and have a resolution about 1024 X 1024 pixels. The MIRI system needs to be cooler than other instruments to measure such a long wavelength range and provided with cryocoolers which consist of two elements i.e. pulse tube precooler and Joule Thompson loop heat exchanger to cool down the MIRI to 7 K while operating. Consists of two types of spectroscopes 

 

  • Medium Resolution Spectroscope- it is the main spectroscope that uses Dichroic and Gratings.

  • Low-resolution Spectroscope- it helps in slitless and long-slit spectroscopy with the help of double prisms to get the spectrum from range 5 to 12 micrometer. Uses Germanium and zinc sulfide prisms to get the dispersion of light.

James Webb Space Telescope
James Webb Space Telescope

SUNSHIELD:

To observe faint heat signals the JWST must need to be extremely cold to detect those faint signals. Sunshield helps in protecting the telescope from heat and light from the sun as well as the heat of the observatory also helps in maintaining a thermally stable environment and helps in cooling to 50K. 

The sun shield is made up of a material named Kapton which is coated with aluminum and the two hottest plates facing the sun also have silicone doping to reflect heat and light from the sun. have high resistance and are stable in a wide range of temperatures. 

 The number of plates and shape of plates play an important role in the shielding process. Five layers are used to protect the telescope and the vacuum between each sheet acts as an insulating medium to heat. Each layer is incredibly thin and the layers are curved from the center. 


James Webb Space Telescope

 

Some quick facts regarding the JWST:

  • The Webb’s primary mirror is 6.5 meters wide. A mirror this large hasn’t been launched in space before.

  • It will help humans to understand the dark age before the time when the first galaxies were formed. 

  • As of now, the JWST is fully deployed in space and is in its cooldown to let its apparatus work at an optimum level. So let’s hold our breaths for the wonderful and exciting discoveries that are yet to come. 

The Great Resignation

Reading Time: 4 minutes

The Great Resignation, also known as the Big Quit, is the ongoing trend of employees voluntarily leaving their jobs, from spring 2021 to the present, primarily in the United States.

Also, it has been observed that this trend has become more popular in the USA and European countries.

The reasons for the same are:

  • It has become more prevalent in those countries, where the companies and the industries have shifted to service-based profiles rather than manufacturing ones.

  • The resignation in these countries used to happen before as well. Still, only during the pandemic, this trend became more popular due to the significant usage of the internet.

  • People started viewing the jobs in a newer way. They could manage their work alongside spending time with their family, flexible working hours, work-life balance, cutting off transportation costs, etc. Now “Jobs” has a newer definition, rather than a typical 9 to 5 one.

  • Also, people got a lot of opportunities to explore their interests, hobbies, and passions.

  • The inadequate pay, relocation costs, social security, bully and divisive boss, and the hunt for better wages, contributed to the same.

  • As per the HBR (Harvard Business Report), resignations were highest among mid-career employees aged 30 and 45 years, even as the quit rate declined for younger employees. The resignation rates also fell for workers in the 60 to 70 age group, while those in the 25-30 and 45+ age groups also saw higher quit rates than 2020.

  • This happened because the companies prefer hiring people they won’t immediately need to train for new roles. Having workers with some experience level is the best way to keep processes running as smoothly as possible.

  • Also, the fields which grew dramatically due to extreme digitalization such as IoT, Data Science, Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain, Cybersecurity, Digital Marketing people started to acquire the relevant skills and hence shifting their careers to the rising and newer fields that show potential growth in the future.

  • Even the freelancing opportunities increased dramatically, where people are their own boss. This also provided people the convenience and comfort of their home even while working.

  • The great resignation is also called a workers revolution that gave people newfound respect for themselves and their lives. The pandemic gave people another reality check on life.

  • Linkedin studied the trend, and it found that the percentage of LinkedIn members who updated their profiles and found a job has increased 54 percent year on year.

  • The sector that suffered the most considerable shift in the jobs included retail and healthcare. The people in these sectors had to devote a lot of time, which led to burnout and high pressure at work coupled with pay cuts and despondence.

The pandemic has given time to people to explore themselves. It forced people to see life’s unpredictability and reflect on what really matters to them. Many realized they didn’t like their current job or at least not their current lifestyle, so millions began re-imagining their lives. Many locked up their city homes and moved to suburbs. They realized they didn’t want to wait until retirement to spend their life in greener pasturelands. Many quit full-time jobs and began freelancing. They realized they wanted to spend more time at home or with family as life is too short to stick it out in the wrong career.

Also, to retain their talent, the companies started realizing the same. Hence,

  • Some companies are offering increments and bonuses.

  • Some employers are even giving collective holidays.

  • Some companies are giving coupons for food delivery.

  • Switching to the hybrid mode of work.

  • Reward your employees for making them feel valued.

  • Giving them better health policies and coming up with better family engagement policies.

  • Giving them a reason to return to work every day.

  • Allowing employees to work from home if they wish to do so.

Although the work from home or even hybrid mode of work has been gaining popularity, this has also created a lot of problems, such as no fixed working hours, untimely meetings, lesser socialization, distractions during work, more secondary motivation, compromisation in the transparency of work, ill time management skills, and many more. Many startups have opened up among all these, which are being started by the young or mid-aged entrepreneurs and older age groups. One such example includes that of the very famous and successful startup, Nykaa, whose CEO is Falguni Nayar, who started it at 50! About 1.4 million startups were registered in the USA, and even India added 1600 startups in the tech sector.

 

We can even see how the pandemic has brought significant changes in various industries, such as healthcare, where drones and robots are being used to deliver food and medicines. Also, different healthcare apps, such as Practo, which connects doctors with patients, have become an excellent means of communication, cutting down significant travel costs. Using digital marketing to reach a wider audience, locally and internationally, helps the local companies go global. All this is due to the social distancing norms that followed. Data science is being used to make better predictions and study the competition even in business.

 

Even in the future, with rising internet usage, the trending and upcoming fields due to digitalization and change in the mentality of the people, the work from home culture or hybrid mode of work or the trend of startups or using of digitalization will grow.

 

So it’s up to you and the company to decide how things should be going, whether to shift to online platforms or it is better to connect with the people and the customers in the offline mode or both, working from home or working in the office or both, whether to shift to freelancing or a 9 to 5 job, it’s all about the game of mentality and the preferences.

Temperature Impact On The Economy

Reading Time: 3 minutes

It is often observed in the present world that most prosperous countries are mainly in the colder regions of the globe. Is this the truth? Or is it just a coincidence?
Are there any valid reasons for this money distribution? Let’s find out together.

Is there a relation between temperature and economy?

If you look at this map, you’ll realize that almost all the developed countries lie outside the tropics.

Temperature Impact On The Economy

This shows that there is some strength in the statement that colder nations are wealthier.

Economic data show that with every one-degree increase in the temperature, GDP per capita of the country decreases by ₹762. Also, research shows that a country’s economy depends 9% on the climate outside. Even if it does not sound much, it is a huge number! Let us dig into the “Why.”

 

Possible reasons for this money distribution:

There are many theories put forward to explain this, but none was able to explain it perfectly. Some of them are:

  1. Due to colder climates, agriculture is not possible in those countries, and the residents have to be extra conscious about their food. They have to stock food, reserve fuels and build good shelters to survive winters. Compounding over generations, this led to a society that valued storing resources, and this gave them a head start against hot countries where food was always available.

  2. Due to weather conditions, agriculture was not a flourishing field. Cold countries have to focus on industries to survive; they eventually became industrial countries earlier than hotter ones, again giving them a headstart in this richness.

  1. Some people also believe that this is because, in hot weather, the temper of people stays high, while in colder countries, people remain calm. Hence, government and business leaders can make better decisions in colder countries having a calm mind.

Hence, both data and theories could somewhat explain why cold countries are more prosperous, but will this be true for the future?

Will this trend continue in the future?

The answer to that is, not necessarily. Why? Let’s investigate further.

The answer to that is not necessarily. Why? Let us investigate further.

About 2,000 years ago, a country’s wealth was strongly linked to how much food it could produce. These days, the food production and distribution industry is so developed that every country has enough stock to feed its population. Hence, in modern days, wealth is driven by innovation.

Colder countries just got a head start because of a few factors, but some hot countries like Singapore, Dubai, Bahrain, and Qatar have shown that this head start will not last forever. All these countries are in hotter regions but are excelling in terms of development and richness. Also, in ancient times, Egypt, Rome, Mayans, Persians, all these rich countries were in the hot regions. Hence, every country has immense potential irrespective of its temperature. The trend of cold countries being more prosperous is most likely to be broken in the coming few decades. The land which will innovate will be at the top regardless of the weather outside.

Let us talk about India.

As we have seen, the economy depends 9% on temperature, which means almost ten times that economy depends on other factors like governance, innovation, and youth.

We can learn several things from countries that are in the hotter region yet developed, like Singapore.

  • Tax laws and Company policies: Ease of doing business. It attracts foreign companies to come to our country. Although India’s rank improved from 142 to 63 in the past five years under the present government, there is still a long way to go. Singapore stands at second position in this.

  • No tolerance for corruption.

  • Adequate distribution of resources.

So, it is clear that any country can become a developed one bypassing its geographic and climate conditions. Therefore, rather than thinking about the conditions we cannot control, let us focus on some that we can. Let us upskill ourselves. It is our responsibility to help the government in whatever way we can. They are the ones taking India towards development.

Hence, we cannot just say that India is not a developed country due to the hot weather conditions. There is a lot more to be improved upon.

“PRIVATIZATION OF PSUs- BOON OR BANE”

Reading Time: 4 minutes

INTRODUCTION

Privatization, the 13-letter politically combustible phrase,refers to the transfer of ownership, property or business from the government to the private sector. So when the government sells more than 50% of its equity shares to the public, that PSU (Public Sector Undertaking) is called privatized.

In privatization a publicly-traded company is taken over by a few people. The stock of the company is no longer traded in the stock market and the general public is barred from holding stake in such a company. The company gives up the name ‘limited’ and starts using ‘private limited’ in its last name.
 
Insights of this blog –
        • Impact of privatization on economy
        • How people will react to it
        • What will happen to GDP
        • Effect on cash flow in market
        • Who will be benefited
        • Thinking about poor community
        • Strategic and non-strategic field
        • Role of covid

Now let’s see some of the merits and demerits of PSU privatization to figure out if the verdict is in favour or not.

IN FAVOUR OF THE IDEA:

“Privatization is a bitter pill but it is a pill that will cure”.
 
Let’s start with a general problem which everyone must have faced at any point of life.
Since the government officials don’t have the fear of being fired sometimes they don’t take their work seriously and we end up getting delayed responses.Whereas, private companies operate in much more effective manner because they have to compete in a fierce free market and in case they are not efficient enough they will go bankrupt. So, if this work is transferred to the private sector we’ll get skillful employment at less wages.
 
Moreover, India is a developing country . The efficiency is not up to the mark, so PSUs will help in reaching the tag “INDIA – A DEVELOPED COUNTRY” at a faster pace.Also, while appearingfor PSUs,one has to face reservation which is not a fair mode for seeking jobs. On the other hand private companies hire on the basis of skills.

 

PSUs in the first decade of 2000 were quite profitable. Then they started issuing more and more stocks which reduced its market interest. Now even in the bullish stock market where the NIFTY has a P/E ( i.e. price to earning ratio) of approximately 29, the major PSUs have a P/E ratio in the range of 5-8 .But after the sale of Air India the PSUs are being revalued by the firms and they see more profitability once more and more PSUs get privatized.

 
Privatization will also lead to decrease in political participation in the working sector, which will ultimately decrease bureaucratic effect. In the year of 2017 ,Sambit Patra, a national spokesperson of BJP, was appointed as an independent director of ONGC which will definitely affect decision making.
 
Examples come with explanations. Let’s move on to them.
As we have seen during 1991, our finance minister Shri Manmohan singh adopted privatization, globalization and liberalization to save the country from economic crisis and at last GDP was increased.Same goes with Adani group, their existing portfolio includes six airports, Lucknow (LKO), Ahmedabad (AMD), Mangaluru (IXE), Guwahati (GAU), Jaipur (JAI) and Thiruvananthapuram (TRV). The company is responsible for the modernization and operations of these airports for a period of 50 years.
 
Adding to the list we have an example of Maruti Suzuki. When Atal Bihari Vajpayee government decided to relinquish it’s control in 2002, the firm was valued at ₹4,339 crores. In the 17 years since, Maruti Suzuki’s company’s market capitalisation has increased to over ₹2.18 lakh crore and it is the market leader in the auto industry.Hindustan Zinc Limited turnover changed from ₹69 crore (before privatization) to ₹8000 crore (after privatization). From the above illustrations one can say “Government has no business to be in business”. If we had privatized PSUs earlier India’s situation would have been far better. So, it is high time to do it now.
 

AGAINST OF MOTION:

Does privatization bring laurels to us or are we just selling family’s silver? In the name of privatization, the government is selling off state assets (owned by everyone) to a wealthier subset of the population , thereby increasing the gap between rich and poor. PSUs work for the public interests whereas private companies work for themselves. No private sector will be interested in opening banks in villages. So what about those people? During Covid-19 pandemic many employees were fired. Private companies are not reliable when we talk of job security. 

Adding further, India is not a rich country. 68.8% of the Indian population lives on less than $2 a day. They prefer government hospitals,dispensaries,schools and public mode of transportation over high end services.According to the survey conducted by National Statistical Office (NSO) ,42% of the population rush to public hospitals for in-patient hospitalisation.Today railway is the cheapest mode of transportation. If all these will be privatized there will be a monopoly of some affluent people and they will take advantage and charge high prices knowing that the consumers will have no choice left but to do so.

In addition, PSUs are a national asset.Examples like ONGC, GALE, BPCL are in huge profit, if they get privatized the government will lose a major source of revenue. Coal India Limited (CIL) is the ‘Maharatna’ public sector undertaking, under the ministry of coal government of India and it is the single largest coal producing company in the world with a revenue of ₹93 thousand crores.
 
Let’s face the question,”Should profit making PSUs be privatized”?
According to Mr. Rakesh Jhunjhunwala,”These are the golden days of PSUs and they should not be privatized”.
 
Also, looking at the job opportunities, most of the government jobs do not require the candidate to hold a specific degree,they are instead just required to qualify for the respective competitive examination for their desired post. But the hiring process of private companies is based on educational qualifications which is not the cup of tea for everyone.
 

THE BOTTOM LINE:

 As the name suggests,’public’ sectors aim to serve the public or the “common man”.However the advantages that the PPP(Public-Private Partnership) model serves for the government and the citizens cannot be neglected. Many believe that privatization can be accepted as long as it does not violate the public interests. But then again, is this even possible? The subject is up for debate. Hopefully this blog gave you enough insight to make a judgement.

China Plus One Strategy

Reading Time: 3 minutes

What is China Plus one strategy?

The COVID-19 pandemic ravaged the whole world and disrupted the entire global supply chain. It prompted companies to invest in other countries around the world to not depend on China wholly. This strategy is called China plus one strategy

How did China manage to attract initial foreign investment?

In the early 1980s, there was a spike in labor and manufacturing costs in western
countries. This made Western companies shift their manufacturing base from their
native countries to China, where cheap labor, low production cost, and enormous
domestic consumer markets for the companies to invest.
 

Significant reasons why companies are looking for alternatives to

Chinese?

           A) The political ideology that China follows.
           B) The spike in labor cost.
           C) Geopolitical conflicts with neighboring countries.
On the other hand, the consumer market in India is already established and ready with cheap and skilled labor. Promoting employment of the youth will be highly beneficial for the country’s economy and attract foreign companies to the country.
 

How can India appeal to foreign investors?

Tariffs: Decrease import taxes on raw materials and machinery. The tax levied on raw material imports is about 40.8% and 29.8% after GST on machinery, making foreign companies think about their options upon investing in India.
China Plus One Strategy

Infrastructure: make transportation and infrastructure better and invest in special economic zones to attract labor for the factories.

      A) The road connectivity in the country poses a significant problem as the quality of             roads is below average in some parts of the country, which causes a delay in                   transportation and increases the cost of maintenance of the vehicle.

      B) The airports and seaports are still not capable of handling a large consignment.

      C) A faulty logistical approach also poses a problem that leads to companies                         reconsidering their options.

      D) Invest in making good schools and hospitals around these economic zones to                  ensure the quality education of children of labor.

Address the power problem: Govt has to focus on giving power at a subsidized rate and invest in renewable energy sources to remove dependence on fossil fuels.

       A) Invest in modernizing power transmission to long distances. Most of the power                lines are still not underground, which poses a problem during natural calamities.

       B) The government has to ensure that the power is supplied to each part of the                      country so that the factories in remote areas can function smoothly.

 

China Plus One Strategy

Try to promote the growth of small-scale industries and establish a communication channel between these small-scale industries and the MNCs and promote collaboration between them.

Promising stores of natural resources.: Ensure a proper supply of water and metals and minerals to these regions.

Try to make the policies & transactions transparent and make the system less corrupt. Also, there should be a reduction in government red tape, and the role of bureaucracy in making industries should be reduced.
 
Strongly investing and introducing new technologies and communication channels in manufacturing and transportation. The government has to aggressively support and promote skill development to ensure jobs for the country’s youth.
 
Resolve political ideologies and avoid clashes to ensure peace in the areas and attract the interest of foreign companies.
         A) The Center has to cooperate with the state governments to reduce the clash between the center and the state.
         B) Ensure stability with proper policing in the area to prevent antisocial elements from wreaking havoc and preventing rioting.

Marketing Strategy behind Rs.999 tags & 10% extra quantity

Reading Time: 5 minutes

INTRODUCTION

You must have seen products being priced as Rs.999 rather than Rs.1000, though there is just a difference of Rs.1, the former one is preferred more and has been a successful marketing strategy. Let’s find what’s behind this strategy.

What goes through the mind while making a purchase of a product which uses this strategy?

a) First round to the closest rounded values and judge the quality of the product.

b) Second to quantitatively assume the incentive of getting a product of higher quality at a lower price.

Psychologically the incentive felt while pricing 999 instead of 1000 is much

higher than that of pricing 998 instead of 999, so in a way we can say that the value of ₹1 is different in different situations.

 

There is one more strategy that has been in the trend since a long time, i.e., offering a 10 or 20% extra quantity for a similar price as before.

 

This strategy works on rational person only if he/she has a reference to compare with. For e.g., if you go to the store and see two products A and B having the same price but different quantities.

 

PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN BRAIN

Marketing Strategy behind Rs.999 tags & 10% extra quantity

Psychological analysis is a clever marketing strategy adopted all over the world. 

Is 999 smaller than 1000? Obviously yes.

 

But it looks much smaller to the subconscious mind. 1000 is a 4digit number and 999 is a 3digit number, so subconsciously our mind decides that 999 or 899 or 799 is a similar group but 999 and 1100 aren’t. Thus, a smaller number of digits in price tag gives impression of cheaper product.

 

THE BLACK MONEY – DISADVANTAGE OF THIS PRICE TAGS

Marketing Strategy behind Rs.999 tags & 10% extra quantity

We all often visit showrooms. Let’s imagine we purchase an item worth ₹999.

So, it’s quite genuine that we don’t ask for ₹1 change in the name of our status symbol.

This same ₹1 when collected in bulk, results in increasing black money in our country. It may sound like contribution of ₹1 will be insignificant when we are

talking about the whole country.

But let’s make it clear from an example.

Suppose a company has 250 retail outlets in INDIA. Daily if 100 customers will drop their ₹1 then the company will make ₹ 250*100*30 i.e. ₹7,50,000 per month. Means unknowingly we are adding a good amount to black market.

DIFFERENCE IN TAXES

Marketing Strategy behind Rs.999 tags & 10% extra quantity

By pricing the products Rs.999 over Rs.1000 has one major benefit to the business as the new GST rules are different for different price ranges.

 For instance, Garments costing less than Rs. 1000 will attract 5% of GST whereas if the price exceeds Rs.1000 (including 1000) it attracts 12% of GST. Hence directly a margin of 7% is created.

Hence if the price is Rs.999 rather than 1000 the buyer has to pay less amount of GST, and obviously this makes this marketing scheme very efficient, as no one wishes to spend more money on taxes.

 PSYCHOLOGICAL PRICING

 

Marketing Strategy behind Rs.999 tags & 10% extra quantity

As we all know the brain has two zones normally, one for feeling and emotional and another is for analysing and aptitude stuff. Basically this 999 and 1000 concept is just a mind game, we think that 999 is coming in 900 range so it’s cheaper than 1000 but we know that the only difference is 1 RS in this.

 

So, what is the reason behind this? Why our brain got tricked by this simple marketing strategy?

 

The main reason is that our brain reads from left to right, the first digit of the price resonates with us the most and it creates an optical illusion of getting something in the lower number series, say when it is written 999, it psychologically gives an effect that we have purchased something in the range of 900 something. But we know very well that this 900-1000 or 99-100 is not varying vastly, the only difference is 1Rs and this difference creates a vast impact on data processing that happens in our brain. And because of these, people don’t bother to pay 1Rs extra to the shopkeeper while buying something because for them at that moment ,1 Rs is nothing in front of 1000 or 900.

 

 

(Fun Fact: The numbers ending with 9 are also called “charm numbers” or “magic numbers”) 

 

SHRINKFLATION

Marketing Strategy behind Rs.999 tags & 10% extra quantity

Shrinkflation is the process of items shrinking in size or quantity, or even sometimes reformulating or reducing quality, while their prices remain the same or increase.

Most consumers do not generally check the size of a product. Someone who loves potato chips, for instance, may not realize if his or her favourite brand reduces the size of the bag by 5%, yet will almost certainly be able to tell if the price goes up by the same amount.

The combination of shrinkflation and giving extra 10% is an effective marketing strategy. 

 

E.g., Chips of 10 Rs weigh 25gm. Decreasing its size to 20gm and giving 10% extra is an effective marketing tac-tics. Overall, the product weight decreased to 22gm but nobody observed it as they think it’s giving an extra 10% so weight must be increased.

 

MAGGI – THE RISE AND FALL IN PRICES

The Nestle’s flagship product Maggi, a very popular instant noodles in India, the price of a small packet of Maggi was Rs.10, but at some point, of time the price was increased to Rs.12 resulting into decrease in the demand and less sales, as most of the people didn’t like to pay the odd Rs.2 as well, leading the company to reduces its price from 12 to 10 again but by reducing the net weight of the product, resulting into again gaining those lost footfalls.

 

Although the price remained to 10, but effectively the price of the product was increased as now the weight was reduced by almost 30gms but, then also people didn’t care much about it as compared to the increase in the MRP. And now many products are using the same strategy of maintaining the MRP, but on the cost of quantity and quality as well.

 

Although, both the above-mentioned marketing strategies are successful and are used widely. But, the effect of reducing from 1000 to 999 is much more than increasing the price from 1000 to 1001, and giving extra 10% quantity, this also comes in accordance with the prospect theory put forward by Daniel Kahneman and Tversky that the effect of a loss of the same magnitude is higher psychologically.

(Daniel Kahneman and Tversky: Nobel 2002 in economics and psychology)

The Beginner’s Guide to Group Discussion

Reading Time: 5 minutes

What is GD?

Whether it be an everyday conversation on the hot news, crying over the losses incurred in the stock market slowdown, loud conservation on our regular chai ki tapri, or the serious board discussions on How the company can achieve the desired quarterly results can be called Group Discussion(GD). 

A GD is simply a discussion where people come together, pitch in their ideas & solve a common problem, or it can just be a topic upon which like-minded people share their views.

Take it this way, recently Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU) released their first animated series, “What if…?”. The fans went crazy over it, and it is the topic of discussion for fans. Another example includes a political party at the time of elections. They need to discuss their strategies upon which person will get a ticket to contest elections or enhance public relations, which will help them win the elections. These are the topics discussed during the meetings. A GD allows people to reach a common ground and derive essential conclusions from it.

GD tests the soft skills of the candidate and helps them magnify their social skills. It has become an effective tool to test candidates leadership, management, and technical skills.

Types of GD

A GD is of basically two types, namely

1. Topic-Based Group Discussion

2. Case Study Based Group Discussion

In the first category, the topics are given to the candidates for discussion. GDS can further be classified into four types of topic-based GDs,

  • Controversial topics: These topics are intentionally given to the candidates to have every possibility of a GD turning into a debate. The thoughts regarding the issues are often clashing and lead to arguments between group members. These GDs specifically help the panelist test candidates about how they proceed through the discussion in a calm and civilized way by listening to each other’s points of view. It also showcases how the participants show tolerance to matters not agreeable to them.
  • Knowledge-based topics: This kind of topic helps in assessing the knowledge of the candidate. The participants must have the necessary knowledge about the topic given in the GD. They should refrain from speaking if the command is less than in that particular area.
  • Abstract topics: These can have single word topics and can also be considered difficult as a regular discussion has a particular framework around which the topic is discussed, but in an abstract GD, there is no specific framework, and the discussion may diverge and change suddenly as different points are brought forward.
  • Case Study topics: For the case study-based GDs, the problem is given to the candidates, and they are required to solve the problem. The time given for the research and preparation is significant. These kinds of GDs are often done in B-schools and are seldom asked in interviews.

Rules

  • A GD starts with an announcement of the topic, which may vary according to the type of GD.
  • Before beginning, a preparation time of 3 minutes is given where the participants can jot down their ideas.
  • Any participant can initiate the discussion, and anyone can continue while giving others equal opportunities to speak up, considering everyone’s point of view.
  • In the end, one person should gather all the significant points to conclude the GD by summarising them and drawing meaningful conclusions

Importance and things to take care:

GD is one of the most significant parameters by which the recruiters screen out the candidates. Many candidates face issues in the GD round. Specific points must be taken care of while in a GD, such as:

Having considerable knowledge about the topic given.

  1. Body language is the key. Showing poor body language makes an abysmal impression on the panelists.
  2. Do not fight during a GD: this is one of the significant problems that disrupt a GD. People often become loud and unruly during GD to prove their point, which leads to the conversion of GD into a debate where no one is interested in understanding the point of view of their peers. This often has a negative impact on the panelists and is one of the significant reasons for the blacklisting of candidates.
  3. Always try to lead with valid points.
  4. Encourage those who have not spoken much. Doing this makes a very positive impact on the panelists and always carries cherry points.
  5. Try to bring the flow of GD in relevance to the topic given whenever the discussion is going off the rails.

How can a GD be successfully conducted?

Points to keep in mind for a GD

  • Communication is the key, and it includes not only speaking but also listening. It helps understand the topic from different points of view. It helps to think accordingly and help reach a solution quicker.
  • Avoid interrupting. It is a discussion, not a battle. Convincing others is an essential skill as it will surely make you stand out in a GD.
  • Staying relevant to the topic and a good detour of the topic helps.
  • Be clear with speech and thoughts. Being interactive and confident might seem like big gestures to follow up. However, as one starts thinking in the right direction, it naturally speaks up even if one is wrong. It is a discussion.

In a GD, how we begin and how we end is essential. Furthermore, a straightforward way to conclude flawlessly can be the “INVERTED FUNNEL APPROACH.” In this, we can jot down the ideas and views of others and ours and create a perfect sequential list that can be used for the conclusion.

Abstract GD

Abstract means existing in thought or as an idea but not having physical or concrete existence. Love and beauty are abstract concepts, which also means they can be perceived differently by every person.

A specific topic can have bias, can make us think either direction, like yes or no, wrong or right, against or for. It has a sense of familiarity. Our brains are forced to look at it and think of it in a simplistic way, which eliminates the possibility of biases, and allows the participant to push boundaries and look at different perspectives.

How to keep speaking when one has exhausted every basic interpretation

When a topic is first presented, every person starts by thinking about the basic interpretations. It may be the same for other people too. Looking at a topic in a different light may help. Consider it as an image, flip it, rotate it, twist it and look at its colors and contrasts. Your mind might now delve into the depths of the topic and find various paths and approaches to think and talk about.

Now, even if the discussion is based on every person’s interpretation, the interpretation should stay relevant to the topic. To ensure it stays that way, a universal point of reference can be kept in mind, which means it should be something that the whole group may identify with. When you start thinking beyond the same usual interpretations, that is when one may start finding connections.

A secret to thinking of ideas faster and enhancing the overall discussion scope in an abstract GD lies in the mnemonic SPELTER.

S: Social

P: Political

    E: Economical

L: Legal

T: Technological

E: Environmental

R: Religious

 

The topics can be associated with SPELTER and can widen the horizon of the whole discussion. GDS holds a special place in academic and professional setups and is one of the most valuable and practical tools to overcome an institutional problem.

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